Hi Paperposter viewers, Manaki telusu, recent ga 14th December mana Bhallaladeva Birthday celebrate chesukunnaru ani. Rana ki marriage ayyaka first Birthday kuda. Ade roju Rana Birthday special ga tanu act chestunna ViraataParvam upcoming telugu movie team, Firstlook video ni fans ki Birthday gift ga release chesaru. Ofcourse aa video within 24 hours lone 2M+ cross chesindanukondi. Ikapothe Rana ki Birthday wishes cheppina celebraties evaro chuddam.
Happy Birthday Fireeeeeee Btw … couldn’t find a pic of us in recent times . I can’t post the old ones ani wish chesina #Bunny tweet ki 50k+ likes and 3900 retweets vachai. Daniki Rana ila reply icharu “Thank you Bunny man!! Lots of love! Old ones send me directly”
“Happy birthday to one of the coolest and most sorted people I know, @RanaDaggubati! Wishing you happiness and more success in everything you do” ani wish cheisna Raviteja ki “Thank you so much sir!!” ani cool gane reply icharu.
Mana Superstar Mahesh babu garaithe “Happy birthday, @RanaDaggubati… Wishing you success and happiness in abundance… Keep up the amazing work!” ani wish chesthe daniki Rana garu “Thank you Chief” ani tweet chesaru.
Ika mana Music Director Devi Sri Prasad garaithe “HAPPIEST MUSICAL BIRTHDAY to the COOLEST & d SWEETEST Buddyy Dearest @RanaDaggubati. I lov d way U choose ur Movies n d way U Explore Life. Keep Rocking always Dearrrr Buddyy. All ur New Movies R alrdy lookin Rocking.” ani rasi last ki #HBDRanaDaggubati ane hashtag tho complete chesaru. Rana daniki “Thank you brooooo” ani reply icharu.
Inka chaala mandi celebraties tweet chesaru. avi line ga okkokati chuddam
Happy birthday @RanaDaggubati ! Here’s wishing you the best…Keep pushing the boundaries brother!
inka chaala mandi Birthday wishes chepparu mana Rana gariki even politicians kuda. Ikkada Rana gari Twitter link place chestunnam. Inka chudalanukunna vaallu direct ga visit ayi chudochu Rana Official Twitter handle.
In the book, “Inhabitants of Bharata Varsha”, Sri G. Obert has mentioned about Saligrama as,
“As this stone possesses besides considerable magnetic force, one need not be surprised that divine or supernatural powers are ascribed to it, and that it is regarded as manifestation of the deity.”
Let us look at the naturally formed sacred stones which are beyond description.
The History of Saligrama’s
Until the period where Nepal was ruled by the King, all the Saligrama’s belonged to the Palace only. If any Brahmin wished to take Saligramas, they would get the same from Kandaki River(Gandagi River). There is a beautiful and informative note from an Englishman, Hutson, about what he has witnessed about Saligrama. The Saligrama’s are considered sacred as Lord Vishnu is manifested in it. A rare and divine Saligrama floats in the water. In fact, some of Saligrama’s also swim in the water. Such type of Saligrama’s are very rare to find. It is also considered that a person who possesses such type of rare Saligrama are considered to be of good soul from the past births. We will also come across Saligrama’s which are filled with water. These type of Saligrama’s will be of deep black in colour and have more shine. These will be cool when handled. These are divine and priceless. The houses and Temple where such Saligrama are housed is considered to be Divine. It is a belief that Kandaki Devatha is residing in these Saligrama. VajraKeedam is also residing in it. Such Saligrama is also called as “Jalaja”. Most of the Saligrama we worship have inscriptions and forms of Lord Vishnu. These are called as Sthalaja. The Sathalaja Saligramas are classified into two: •Mattha – Where the Saligrams is condensed, hard, and is little low in polish. The Saligrama looks green in colour and will have Lakshana (Divine Forms).
•Kesara – The Kesara is clustered with many formations of thread like carvings and is less in weight. The Kesara will literally float in water and is highly adorable. Superior Saligrama, which are more pure and divine, if kept in rice bowl or milk for certain period, will gain weight.
An Act of Love
Bhagavan Sriman Narayanan with great benevolence and kind heart, has taken the simplest form inside Salagrama. He has made the Salagrama as his place of abode, to bless those who do not possess knowledge. The beauty in worshipping a Salagrama is there is no need for high expenses or a wide space for worshipping Salagrama. Little water with lots of love is enough for Thirumanjanam. One should not worship with 2 Salagrama’s. 1, 3 or more than that is allowed. A home which is housed with 12 or more Salagrama’s is equivalent to a Divyadesam. Salagrama’s are significant and important in Swayam Vyakta Khestras (DivyaDesams which are formed of its own). These Salagrama’s in fact sustain the divinity of the Temple in those Kshetras. Even if the Divya Mangala (Idol) worship got any stoppages, it won’t harm, due to the presence of these Salagrama’s. Hence, we should have at least one Salagrama’s in all the Vishnu temple.
The Different Kinds of Salagrama’s
A Salagrama which is as small as an amla fruit is considered to be precious. It is also easy to perform pooja and worship. We get 3 kinds of Salagrama’s: •Hiranya Grabha Salagrama – The Hiranya Grabha Salagrama’s do not have any inscriptions or sculptures on them. Coloured in black, these Salagrama’s look like pebbles and are glossy in nature. Though these type of Salagrama’s can be worshiped, they are not considered to be much precious.
•The Half Split Chakra Salagrama – The Salagrama’s which are seen as split into two halves and inscribed with Chakra symbol. •Precious Salagramas – Salagrama which are seen with holes and also formed in the shapes of weapons of Lord Vishnu. These are precious to be worship. Some of the Salagrama’s are available in different colours too. It is advisable not to have Salagrama’s which have more holes, pores and also which have a wider hole. As per Dharmic sastras, we should not purchase Salagrama against money. It is even considered that donating a Salagrama is equal to donating a land.
Laskhanas (Forms of Salagrama’s)
Let us also explore some of the Laskhanas, i.e., the different forms of Salagrama’s: •Vasudevan Salagrama – The Vasudevan Salagrama is a rich blackish in colour Salagrama, which has two chakars inscriptions in the open. •Sankarshanan Salagrama – The red coloured, Sankarshanan Salagrama, will have two chakras inscriptions in the open. •Pradhyumnan Salagrama – The blue coloured, Pradhyumnan Salagrama has more pores/holes on its body and has minute or delicate inscriptions of the Chakra. It is not to be bothered on the greater number of holes present for this form of Salagrama. •Anirudhan Salagrama – The yellow coloured, Anirudhan Salagrama has Padhma (Lotus) inscriptions. •Narayanan Salagrama – The round shaped and black in colour, Narayanan Salagrama will have a big and wide opening. •Pramesti Salagrama – The Pramesti Salagrama will have lotus, chakra inscriptions along with one Bindhu (Dots). This has one hole on the backside. •Vishnu Salagrama – The Vishnu Salagrama will have big Chakra and linings (Rekhas) in the middle. •Narasimha Salagrama – As described in Agni Purana, the black coloured, Narasimha Salagrama will have bigger Chakra inscriptions, along with five Bindhus (Dots). Also, Garuda Purana describes that Narasimha Salagrama will be in golden colour or Kapila colour and centre part in elevated manner with three to five Bindhus. •Varaha Salagrama – According to the Agni Purana, the triangular shaped Varaha Salagrama will have two rings on the left side and has two uneven chakras. The Salagrama will have long facet, ringed with flowers and will have Chakra inscriptions in the hole.
In Treta Yuga, there was a king named Harishchandra of Surya Vamsha(dynasty). Once he was hunting in the Mahabahu forest when suddenly, he heard loud cries of a woman- ‘Save me! Save me!’ It was followed by the cries of many women. Hearing those cries, King Harishchandra shouted loudly- ‘Don’t be afraid’ and dashed in the direction of the cries. The cries however were an illusion created by Vighnaraj, the lord of the obstacles. At that time when King Harishchandra heard those cries, sage Vishwamitra was observing severe penance in the forest. In order to test Harishchandra’s virtuosity, Vighnaraj entered his body. As soon as Vighnaraj entered Harishchandra’s body, Harishchandra lost his temper and began to abuse Vishwamitra, which enraged him. His anger destroyed all the knowledge, he had acquired due to his severe penance. Seeing the angry Vishwamitra, King Harishchandra began to shiver. With folded hands, he begged Vishwamitra’s pardon. He said- ‘O great sage! It is my duty to protect the subjects. Kindly forgive me. Your wrath could greatly affect the performance of my duties as a king. Vishwamitra said- ‘O king! If you are a true follower of religion, tell me, who should be given a donation? Who should be protected and who should be fought with?’ Harishchandra answered- ‘O great penancer! Donations should be made only to such a Brahmin who indulges in fast and religious actions. Protection should be extended to those who are afraid and battle should be fought with enemies.’
Vishwamitra said- ‘If you are a religious king, give me Dakshaina (donation) as I am a Brahmin seeking salvation.’ Harishchandra said- ‘Tell me your desire. I am ready to grant it. Vishwamitra said- ‘O king! Just presume that I have received whatever you would donate me. Now, give me Dakshaina for the Rajsuya Yagya.’
Harishchandra said- ‘Ask me whatever you wish to have as the Dakshaina of Rajsuya Yagya.’ Vishwamitra said- ‘O king! Give me all you have except your own body, your wife and child.’ Feeling pleased, King Harishchandra granted what Vishwamitra desired. Vishwamitra said- ‘O king! Tell me, who is the lord of your kingdom?’ Harishchandra said- ‘Since the moment I have presented this kingdom to you, you are its master.’ Vishwamitra said- ‘If I am the master of this kingdom, what are you doing here? Leave at once! But before leaving, remove all your clothes, ornaments and other royal insignia and go out wearing tree’s bark only.’
Thus after losing his kingdom, King Harishchandra got ready to leave with his wife Shaivya and son Rohit(Lohit) Vishwamitra then intercepted him and said- ‘Where are you going without paying a Dakshaina for Rajsuya Yagya. Harishchandra said- ‘O lord! I have donated my whole kingdom. Now only our bodies remain with us. What can I give you now?’ Vishwamitra said- ‘You cannot leave without paying a Dakshaina because you have promised me.’ Harishchandra said- ‘Don’t be angry, O Brahmin! I have nothing at present in my position but I will definitely pay you your Dakshaina in due time.’ Vishwamitra said angrily- ‘Specify the time period within which you will give me my Dakshaina or else be ready to get cursed by me.’ Harishchandra said- ‘I will pay the Dakshaina within a month.‘ Thereafter, Harishchandra started to live in seclusion with his wife and children. Seeing the king’s pitiable condition, his entire subjects began to follow him. Seeing their condition, Harishchandra halted and took a look on his subjects. At the same time, sage Vishwamitra also arrived there and began to curse Harishchandra for having attachment towards his subjects. Hearing the harsh words of Vishwamitra, Harishchandra left the kingdom with his wife Shaivya and son Rohit. To drive the king away as soon as possible, Vishwamitra began to beat the queen’s back with a stick.
After being thrown out from his kingdom by Vishwamitra, Harishchandra reached the holy town of Varanasi, which was an abode of Lord Mahadeva. There Harishchandra saw Vishwamitra standing before him. Vishwamitra said- ‘A month has been completed now. Now, give me my Dakshaina.’ Harishchandra said- ‘There is still half an hour in the completion of this month. Please wait. I will give your Dakshaina.’ Vishwamitra said- ‘I will come after half an hour.’ Saying this, Vishwamitra departed.
When Vishwamitra left, Harishchandra started to worry as to what would happen to him in his next birth if he did not keep his promise made to a Brahmin. Seeing him perplexed, queen Shaivya tried to console him. She said- ‘Man requires a wife only to produce a child. Now we already have a child- Rohit. Hence I am no longer useful for you. You sell me and pay the acquired wealth as Dakshaina to the Brahmin.’ Harishchandra fainted after hearing his wife’s words. The queen began to wail at her husband’s condition. Thus wailing, the queen also fell unconscious. The little Rohit also felt perplexed by his parent’s condition. He began to cry- ‘O father! O mother! I am hungry. Give me food.’ At the same time, Vishwamitra arrived there in the guise of Kal. After sprinkling water on Harishchandra’s face, he made him conscious and said- ‘O king! Get up and pay my Dakshaina. Your sorrows will increase if you do not fulfil your promise.’
Harishchandra was regaining his consciousness slowly but seeing Vishwamitra he fainted once again. This further enraged Vishwamitra. He said- ‘O king! If you have even slightest of respect for Dharma, give my Dakshaina at once. I will wait till evening and curse you if you fail to pay my Dakshaina.’ Saying this Vishwamitra departed. The fear of the curse began to terrorise Harishchandra. Meanwhile the queen also regained consciousness. She once again insisted to sell her in order to pay the Dakshaina. This time, Harishchandra accepted her proposal and took the queen to the township. There addressing the crowd, he said- ‘O dear citizens, kindly listen to me. I am selling my wife who is dearer to me than my own life. Anybody interested in buying her, please do so before evening.’ An old Brahmin stepped forward from the crowd and said- ‘I will buy her.’ Hearing his words, Harishchandra became extremely sad that he could not even utter a word. The Brahmin then stuffed the money in the bark clothes of Harishchandra and began to drag the queen by her hair. The boy Rohit began to cry holding the hem of her mother. Seeing the condition of her son, the queen requested the Brahmin- ‘O Arya! Kindly let me see the face of my child for once.’ Then the queen turned towards Rohit and said- ‘O son! Your mother is no longer free now. She has become a slave. Do not touch me because I have become an untouchable.’
Then the old Brahmin began to forcibly drag the queen with him. Rohit also followed them crying loudly for his mother. The old Brahmin angrily kicked him. But still the boy did not give up following them. At last, the queen requested the Brahmin- ‘O lord! I will not be able to serve you without my son. So kindly buy him also.’ Hearing the words of the queen, the Brahmin once again stuffed some more money in the clothes of Harishchandra and tied the boy with the queen and began to drag both of them. Meanwhile Vishwamitra also appeared there and demanded the Dakshaina. Harishchandra gave him all the money he had got from selling his wife and son. Seeing that amount of money, Vishwamitra boiled with anger and said- ‘O wretched among the Kshatriyas! You call this small amount of money as Dakshaina! Now look at the powers of my penance.’ Harishchandra trembled with fear and said- ‘O lord! Please wait a little more.’ Vishwamitra said- ‘Now only, a quarter of the day remains. I will wait only for this period and not more.’ Saying this, Vishwamitra went away. With stooped face, Harishchandra once again said addressing the crowd- ‘Now I am available for sale. Whoever wishes to buy me, please come forward before sunset.’ Dharma in the guise of a Chandala stepped forward from the crowd. He had a huge stinking body. He said- ‘I will buy you.’ Harishchandra asked- ‘Who are you?’ The Chandala said- ‘I am a Chandala. My name is Praveer and I am the resident of this very town.’ Harishchandra thought- ‘It is better to accept the curse than accepting the slavery of a Chandala.’ At the same time, Vishwamitra also arrived there and said angrily- ‘This Chandala is ready to pay you a lot of money. Why don’t you then pay my Dakshaina?’ Harishchandra said- ‘O lord! I am born in Suryavansh. Accepting the slavery of a Chandala causes great pain for me. I have no money now. Since now onwards, I will be your slave and do whatever you will ask me to do.’ Vishwamitra said- ‘If you are my slave and ready to obey me, then I sell you to this Chandala for 1000 gold coins. Go and become his slave.’ The Chandala then presented many villages that were spread over an area of 100 Yojans to Vishwamitra and tying Harishchandra with a rope dragged him to his town.
In the Chandala’s house, Harishchandra contemplated- ‘The queen must be thinking that I would soon get her freed from the slavery of the old Brahmin after paying his dues. But she does not know that I myself have become the slave of a Chandala.’ After a few days, the Chandala appointed Harishchandra as the supervisor of the cremation place and instructed him to be there present all the time and to cremate each dead body only after thorough investigation. He also instructed him to collect the toll for cremating every dead body and divide it in such a way that one sixth part of the toll goes to the king and from the remaining five parts, three parts should be reserved for him he should take only the remaining two parts as his remuneration. Since that day, Harishchandra began to live in the cremation ground. He always remembered the glorious days of his kingdom, his queen and his son. He had great regret that just because of the anger of Vishwamitra, he lost everything. Very soon, his new found occupation began to show on his appearance. His hair grew long and was unkempt, his body dry and stinking. In this guise, he began to roam in the cremation ground always carrying a stick in his hand. His whole day passed in the assessment of the cremation toll and its division among the various claimants. He had lost his mental stature as he even forgot the count of the days and could not distinguish between the day and night.
One day, a snake bit Rohit as a result of which, he died. Shaivya brought Rohit, crying and wailing to the cremation ground. Even in the unkempt guise, she recognised Harishchandra. Hearing her wailing, Harishchandra went near her expecting to get the clothes of the deceased. There he saw a woman carrying a dead boy wrapped in a black cloth. He could not recognise queen Shaivya but the royal appearance of the boy forced him to think- ‘To which royal family did this unfortunate boy belong to? How pitiable, the cruel Kal did not even spare this boy. My son Rohit would have attained the same age by now.’ His silence further hurt the queen who said- ‘O lord! O king! How come, you have been living here without caring for your wife and son? We have already lost our kingdom. Now, we have lost our son also. O destiny! Did you not destroy everything of Harishchandra?’ Harishchandra began to think who that woman could be and who that dead boy was? ‘Isn’t she my wife?’ Thus recognising his wife and dead son, Harishchandra began to cry loudly and fainted. The queen after seeing her husband’s condition fainted too. After sometime both of them regained their consciousness. Then the king took the dead boy in his lap and once again fainted. Queen Shaivya began to wonder why Harishchandra was staying in the cremation ground. For a moment, she forgot her sorrow and began to look at her fainted husband. Then she noticed the stick in Harishchandra’s hand. Usually Chandalas used to carry that kind of stick. She became dejected with the thought that she had become the wife of a Chandala. She then began to curse the destiny and began to wail embracing King Harishchandra and said- ‘O king! I don’t know whether I am dreaming or it is a reality. I have lost the power of thinking.’
Hearing the words of the queen, the king opened his eyes and narrated the whole events that led to his becoming a Chandala. Then the queen narrated her experiences and how their son Rohit died because of snakebite. Harishchandra fell on the ground and began to hug his dead son. He was wailing- ‘How unfortunate I am that even my wishes are not under my control. Without the permission of the Chandala, I cannot even commit self- immolation. But now, I will not differentiate between the sin and virtuosity. I will destroy my body in the pyre of my son.’ The queen said- ‘O king! I am also unable to bear the burden of sorrows. I will also commit immolation with you. Then all three of us will stay unitedly in the heaven. It won’t matter to us even if we suffer the tortures of hell.’ Then the king arranged a huge pyre and put his dead son on it. With the queen, he began to pray to God. Just then all the deities arrived there led by Dharma. Sage Vishwamitra also accompanied them. They praised Harishchandra. Then Dharma, Indra and Vishwamitra came closer to the king.
Dharma said- ‘O king! You have satisfied me with your merits like patience, endurance, truthfulness etc.’ Indra said- ‘Harishchandra, you are very fortunate. You have won our hearts along with your wife and son. You have even won the heaven with your action. I invite you to stay in heaven along with your wife and son.’ Then Indra sprinkled ambrosia on the dead Rohit. Rohit got up and sat up in no time. Harishchandra, his wife and son Rohit were clad in divine clothes and garlands. Indra invited them to stay in the heaven forever but Harishchandra said- ‘O king of the deities! Without the permission of this Chandala, I cannot go anywhere.
‘Dharma said- ‘O king! I had learnt in advance about the miseries you would suffer in future. That’s why I took the guise of a Chandala and showed you all the grotesque action.’ Indra once again invited them to heaven but once again, Harishchandra refused saying that in Koshal, people must have been living mournfully in his absence. ‘I cannot leave them in that pitiable condition to enjoy the comforts of the heaven’, said Harishchandra. Then, Indra, Dharma and Vishwamitra led Harishchandra to Ayodhya, the capital of Koshal. There they carried out the coronation of Rohit. Thereafter, they took Harishchandra and his queen Shaivya to the heaven.
Till now, we can able to see the place in Varanasi where the King Harishchandra use to work under chandala, with a name called Harishchandra Ghat(one of the ghat out of total 18 ghats).
Takshashila, now known as Taxila, is an important ancient town situated in India (Divided into Pakistan during Partition) – in Punjab. Takshashila today is just a shadow of what it was centuries ago. It was the First University in its world. It wasn’t a real university in today’s sense, but was home to several great Professors.
Takshashila in reference to the Ramayana which states that the city was named in honour of Bharata’s son and first ruler, Taksha. India has a long and venerable history in the field of higher education. In ancient times, the country was known to have been home to the oldest formal universities in the world. More than 2700 years back a huge university existed in the ancient India where over 10,500 students from all across the world came for higher studies. This was the Takshashila university of ancient India (wrongly spelled as Taxila today). It was an important Vedic/Hindu and Buddhist center of learning but wasn’t as well organized as the Nalanda University.
Taxila is also described in some detail in the Buddhist Jātaka tales, written in Sri Lanka around the 5th century. In this text, Taxila has been mentioned as the capital of the kingdom of Gandhara (Modern days Afghanistan) and a great learning center.
The site initially began to develop as a loosely connected group of buildings where learned persons resided, worked and taught. Over the years, additional buildings were added; rulers made donations and more scholars migrated there. Gradually a large campus developed, which became a celebrated seat of learning in the ancient world.
The campus accommodated students who came from as far as Babylonia, Greece, Arabia and China and offered over 64 different fields of study like Vedas, Grammar, Philosophy, Ayurveda, Agriculture, Surgery, Politics, Archery, Warfare, Astronomy, Commerce, Astrology, Music, Dance, etc. There were even curious subjects like the art of discovering hidden treasure, decrypting encrypted messages, etc.
10 Interesting Facts About Taxila University
Admission into this university was purely based on merit. Students were admitted to this university at the age of 16 after they had completed their basic education in their local institutions.
Takshashila had no structured syllabus or mode of instruction. Several great teachers taught large numbers of students here.
One could attend the classroom of any teacher he wished to learn from. And the teachers could teach any number of students, depending upon their liking. No king or ruler ever tried to interfere in the workings of Takshashila.
Entrance exam to Takshashila was very difficult and only 3 out of every 10 students passed the admission test.
Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise ArthaShastra (Ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit) by Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself. He was also mentor and Professor of Chandragupta Maurya who founded the Great Mauryan Empire, and also served as the prime minister of the Mauryan Empire. Even Chandragupta Maurya studied at Takshashila.
Another great student from Takshashila university was Vishnu Sharma, the author of the great book that teaches the art of political science in the form of simple beautiful stories called the Pancha Tantra.
Panini was another great Professor of this university. He was an expert in Language and Grammar and authored one of the greatest works on grammar ever written called Ashtadhyayi.
Charaka, the famous ancient Indian Ayurvedic physician was also Professor of Takshashila university. He originally authored the Charaka Samhita.
Jivak was another Professor who came out of the Takshashila university. He was a Doctor and an expert in Pulse Reading. There are over 15000 handwritten manuscripts of Jivak’s Expertise passed on by generations to their children and are still preserved in India even today.
Under the king Ashoka of Mourya Empire, the city touched its peak in terms of development. Taxila after this saw the most creative period under the rule of Gandhara. In the next 200 years, Taxila became a center of great learning.
During the 800 years Taxila was operational. It gained popular fame. The University consisted of:
300 lecture halls with stone benches for sitting
Observatory for Astronomical Research
Massive Library call Dharma Gunj (Mountain of Knowledge) consisting of 3 blocks.
How Taxila University Ruined
Being the north-west frontier of India, Takshashila had to face the brunt of attacks and invasions from the north and the west. Thus the Persians, Greeks, Parthians, Shakas and Kushanas laid their destructive marks on this institution. When Alexander’s armies came to the Punjab in the 4th century B.C., Takshashila had already developed a reputation as an important seat of learning. Thus on his return Alexander took many scholars from there with him to Greece. In the second half of the 5th century, it was severely damaged by Huns invasions. They destroyed the whole city, University and all Buddhist monasteries which never again recovers. During the 7th century it was gradually abandoned by its inhabitants.